I see the same confusion in a lot of threads when Genetic Type VS. APHA Type is discussed with regards to patterns. I thought it might help those that are unfamiliar with APHA to understand how APHA uses the common terms that are not "correct" when put against genetics. If you have an APHA registered Paint, then within that orginization there are specific guidelines as to "what pattern" your horse is, that often in NO WAY relates in complete regards to the actual genetic "pattern" of your horse. From their site this is good starter reading to understand the way APHA decides the pattern designation of what THEY consider the two "main" patterns: http://www.apha.com/breed/geneticeq.html Then go to THEIR combined patterns page: http://www.apha.com/breed/geneticeq6.html Then, THEIR deffination of: Tobaino: Overo: Tovero: Now, this is where people get confused. IF your horse is APHA registered, then one correct way to "define" your horses pattern as a REGISTERED PAINT is by the APHA standard. It IS NOT the genetically correct way many times, but it is correct according to THEIR GUIDELINES. However, most dedicated breeders are a little smarter than APHA and are determined to stay informed of new information and knowledge from science as they are made avaliable. They don't always get it right, but at least they try a lot harder than APHA does as an association. APHA still doesn't offically "recognize" testing for common genetic mutations of Health risk to their breed by not being willing to note even the most common of all tests (HYPP and LWO) on the papers. So it is not supprising that they are a long way behind the curve in recognizing when their "pattern designations" are not up to current scientific standard. However, because it IS their orginization and it is done by their rules, the correct pattern designations for an APHA registered horse is as their guidelines show. It may well not be genetically correct, but it is the standard by which "horse patterns" are named with APHA registration. It is just as important, IMO, that owners and breeders of registered Paint horses educate themselves to understand, as much as currently possible, as to the genetically correct designation of their horses according to current science. So, while I may not be ready to quanitfy all, I am willing to support that most genetic advances are probably correct in designating color/pattern designations. However, that does not mean that if your horse is an APHA registered Tobiano with face white that it is registered wrong. It is RIGHT according to the standards set by YOUR HORSES governing association. It is just not genetically correct. Thus, if you say you have a Tobiano APHA registered horse and it happens to have face white, then you are correct. But, if someone else says the horse is not "just Tobiano" then they are probably also correct. And the same goes for an AQHA registered horse with different "white markings". But, that's another thread, LOL.